What Was Thermopylae and What Was the Battle at Thermopylae? "hot gates") was a pass the Greeks tried to defend in battle against the Persian forces led by Xerxes, in 480 B. The Greeks (Spartans and allies) knew they were outnumbered and hadn't a prayer, so it was no surprise that the Persians won the Battle of Thermopylae. Although Greece lost at Thermopylae, the following year they won battles fought against the Persians.The Spartans who led the defense were all killed, and they may have known in advance that they would be, but their courage provided inspiration to the Greeks. Persians Attack the Greeks at Thermopylae: Xerxes' fleet of Persian ships had sailed along the coastline from northern Greece into the Gulf of Malia on the eastern Aegean Sea towards the mountains at Thermopylae.
Testament come from testamentum , the word by which the Latin ecclesiastical writers translated the Greek diatheke ., he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and Mycale.Herodotus' book also contains ethnographic descriptions of the peoples that the Persians have conquered, fairy tales, gossip, and legends.However, the Athenians were not present at the Battle of Thermopylae and likely escaped any potential consequences of being associated with its defeat.Though it was the first major land battle of the Persians’ second invasion of Greece, the dating of Thermopylae has, like most ancient dates, undergone some severe speculation. Kenneth Sacks, a Professor at Brown University who received a Ph. in Ancient History from the University of California, Berkeley, summarizes the arguments in his article “Herodotus and the Dating of the Battle of Thermopylae.” He emphasizes that Herodotus uses “summer as a climatic description only” and not as the specific season we would be familiar with today (238).